By Austan Goolsbee

Mr. Goolsbee is a professor of economics at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business and was chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers from 2010 to 2011.

Americans everywhere remain concerned about getting past what feels like a never-ending litany of Covid-19-induced economic problems, from out-of-stock products to inflation and continued fears of exposure to illness when going out. When will it finally end?

Professional economic forecasters are struggling to answer this question.

Many are turning to previous recessions as a guide to how things will go. But one of the most important things to understand is that while the pandemic created a collapse — and for some even an economic disaster — it really wasn’t a recession in the normal sense.

That sounds strange. Indeed, the arbiter of these things, the National Bureau of Economic Research, declared that the United States had a two-month recession in March and April 2020.

But past business cycles look nothing like what the United States has gone through in the pandemic, so they are the wrong place to find lessons for where things are going now.

The causes of recessions vary, but they follow a basic pattern: The hardest-hit industries are the cyclically sensitive sectors where demand dries up. Those sectors include sales of big-ticket items like furniture, construction materials, appliances and cars, as the Bureau of Labor Statistics and others have documented. These are purchases that can be delayed when times are bad. Recoveries begin when demand returns to these cyclical industries, when prices fall enough or interest rates get cut enough or pent-up needs build sufficiently for demand to return.

Recessions have much smaller impacts on noncyclical industries like hospitals, nursing care, gas and electric utilities, and the like. Demand there is steady regardless of the cycle. Some service sector industries, like education, see demand rise in recessions.

None of these familiar patterns held during the pandemic economic collapse. Spending on consumer durables went up. Indeed, sales of TVs with screens larger than 65 inches rose 77 percent from April to June 2020, compared to the year before, as the bottom dropped out of the economy. Watching TV was one of the few things people could still do during lockdown. Demand for other cyclical industry goods like housing and construction materials boomed too.

During the pandemic downturn, Americans also reversed a decades-long trend toward spending on services rather than goods. For 75 years, consumers in the United States have been spending less and less of their money on physical goods (from 60 percent of spending in the 1940s to 31 percent in 2019). Counter to this trend (and contrasting with previous recessions), the share of consumer spending on physical goods actually jumped during the pandemic to the highest level in 17 years and among the biggest jumps ever recorded.

In other words, this was a recession like no other in recent memory. The pandemic downturn was driven by all those industries that are supposed to be recession-proof — trips to the dentistelectricity usage in offices and malls, and so on. And the normally countercyclical education sector had big enrollment drops despite the bad economy.

Of course, this was because of the coronavirus. But it means that the recovery from past recessions doesn’t really say much about how the recovery will go now. Everyone is trying to predict when there will be a rebound in service sector industries that normally don’t decline, like health care, child care and education. That’s really more of a question about how quickly we can control the spread of the virus than it is about recession fundamentals.

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